History

1436(1)

Alanta manor

Duke Žygimantas Kęstutaitis gave Alanta as a present to the Astikas in 1436. During their reign a manor house was built in the bend of Virinta river. In 1581 King Steponas Batoras transferred the ownership of the manor to the commander of the Hungarian army in Lithuania Gabriel Bekeš. Later Kristupas Radvila bought it. In 1828 it was acquired by the offspring of the noblemen Pacas duke Tadeusz Pac-Pomarnacki.

23 aAlantos dvaro foto 9  Alantos dvaro foto 8

In 1655 a group of Cossacks took the noblemen refugee camp in Alanta with 100 carts. The unit of the volunteer army, however, liberated the arrested noblemen. A pub that stands there even today was built in Alanta in the 18th century. In 1831 the platoon of the tsarist general J. Savoinis reached Alanta and attacked the units of the insurgents. 400 insurgents were killed or wounded and 82 were taken into captivity. Lithuanian army beat Bolsheviks on 31 May 1919 near Alanta. In 1920 the Jewish elementary school was set up and 51 pupil learned in it. The Rabi of the Jews of Alanta town was Zelmanas Dubčanskis. In June 1935 there was a festival of all Alanta volost elementary schools. On October 6 of the next year a regional agricultural exhibition was organized, there were nearly 1000 showpieces in it and around 3000 people visited it. At the beginning of World War II the Nazis exterminated all Jews of Alanta .

alanta

A Neo-Romanesque style Alanta church that was built according to the project of the architect of the Swedish origin Karlas Eduardas Strandmann, grew on the hill in the early 20th century. In the soviet period the lower agricultural school was in operation in the Alanta manor house, Alanta state farm-technical school. In 1992 it was already Alanta agricultural school and in 2002 – the school of technology and business.

Jews of the Moletai Region – Flourish, Calamity and Rescuers

The privilege of Vytautas the Great of the 14th century promoted the settling of Jews in Lithuania. Since the 17th century, however, there was a rule in Lithuania that a synagogue might not be similar to any Christian church and dominate in the ambience. Synagogues were never erected in the centers of towns wherein usually Catholic churches or Orthodox churches erected in the tsarist times predominated. (dr. Marija Rupeikienė) In late 19th century many Jews of the town emigrated to South Africa, some moved to Israel. In the Mount of Olives cemetery of Jerusalem there are tombstones of that period for the emigrants from Molėtai. Molėtian R. Gordon, who was one of the founding fathers of Chadera town, left for Israel in 1891. There were 2397 inhabitants in Molėtai in 1897 and 1948 of them were Jews. There were four synagogues there Rabi Meir-Šolom Curjon (died in 1839), Israel David Elpern, Icchok Arje Bilickij (since 1920, died in 1939), his son Noti-Choim Bilickij (down to 1941). He was killed together with other Jews of the town.

Ethnical otherness of Jews – different appearance, language, different national and religious traditions singled them out of the local population – autochthons. Mixed marriages were very rare. The witness of the pre-war period from Alanta an ambassador Vytautas Antanas Dambrava told the author of the given book that in their numerous family Jews were held in esteem – on Saturdays mother used to ask the kids not to make noise or run about since it was a holy day for the Jews – Sabbath. The Jewish community who lived at the side of Lithuanians for long centuries unfolded only in the independent Lithuania. In 1918-1940 Jews were the biggest national minority that possessed its cultural national autonomy, schools wherein the instruction language was Yiddish or Hebrew. According to the data of the first population census of Lithuania of 1923 Molėtai inhabites 1772 people  1343 of which were Jews. Even on the liquidation of the Jew autonomy in 1926 a well-operating education system was preserved. The state of Lithuania supported the newly established schools and was interested in the Jews learning the Lithuanian language as well – simply to break away from the influence of Russian and German. Jewish associations and charity institutions flourished. After the restoration of the state of Lithuania in 1918 the Jews that had been deported by the Russians started returning to Lithuania. They were rendered help by the Jewish charity, a Jewish bank was in operation, Jewish People’s banks were also in the process of being set up.

In early 20th century the greater majority of Lithuanians did business in the agricultural sector whereas Jews – in trade and handicraft. Interaction of those nations made no problems for some centuries. But having consolidated their statehood Lithuanians were urged to take care of the economic state of their nation and take over the trade into their hands. It was economic competition that was the reason of the tension between Lithuanians and Jews. When after the Polish occupation Lithuania lost Vilnius region, a demarcation line appeared, which radically decreased the possibilities for the Jews to engage in trade. The discord between the Jews and the Lithuanians was aggravated by the fact that the Jewish community was influenced by the ideas of the proletarian cult that arrived from the Bolshevik Russia. Young Lithuanian Jews, especially those from poorer strata of the society allied with the communist organization, which was outlawed in Lithuania. The historiographical sources point out that prior to World War II it was only Jews who belonged to the communist organizations in Molėtai. When the first soviet occupation commenced in summer of 1940 Jews could legalize themselves, take up high posts and repressive soviet structures also used their services.

Calamity

The major calamity of the Jews of Molėtai region commenced on 26 June 1941 after Nazis arrived in Molėtai. In one week after their invasion 60 Jewish young people were arrested and killed. Older Molėtians remember that only 6 Germans arrived in Molėtai. The Germans organized the units of local henchmen to watch the Jews in the ghetto established in the center of Molėtai between Vilnius and Kaunas streets as well as for their killing and parceling out of their property. The head and accountant of the mass annihilation of Jews in Lithuania was SS colonel standartenführer Karl Jäger, head of the 3rd operational unit. His reports of 1941 are peculiar account- books of the mass killings in Lithuania: ”I may state today that the 3rd operational unit reached its goal – to solve the problem of Jews in Lithuania. There are no more Jews in Lithuania…”

Moletai jews, killed in 1941  Icchak Shochot, sitting, killed in Moletai 1941

Reminiscences and photos of the personal album of Ruth Liberman (Israel), 2011

Dina married my uncle Moišė Šochot not long ago. When Jews were being collected from their homes, Moišė was in Utena. He must have been killed there. Dina was pregnant – she expected her first baby. She and her 15-year-old sister hid themselves in the storehouse of their neighbours. It turned out quite recently that that was the house of the grandfather of Donatas Ivanauskas – pharmacist Jeronimas Ivanauskas. The hid there for three months. They wanted to go and see who survived and what was left of their house. They put on big scarves took pails into their hands and left. Before long they were recognized and people from the commandant’s office were invited at once. That was how they lost their lives. In August 1941 all Molėtai Jews were marched for shooting. They were kept without food or water for three days. My grandfather spoke to the Rabbi: ”Rabbi, there are only six Germans, we could cope with them easily and run away into all directions – some people could save their lives”. To which the Rabbi replied: “If we lose our lives that will be by God’s will.” Chanting the Marseillaise the komsomols were the first to jump into the pit. Then all other were forced to jump. My grandfather was not able to come to terms with it – to die with no resistance at all. He lost his mind, tore the dress of my grandma and attacked one of the Germans prepared to bite through his throat but he was shot right away.

Adina and Moishe Shochot. She was killed in Moletai, he in Utena, 1941

My three-year-old cousin Motalė crawled from the pit three times but he was again thrown back into it. The neighbours were standing around and watching how the Jews were being killed. An old and ailing doctor Albertas Jauniškis was forcefully brought to the pit to watch how his friends Jews die. Seeing the baby and its desire to live he begged the Germans to give it to him and promised to bring him up as a Lithuanian. But it was of no use. Next day the doctor died of broken heart.

Entl Shochot, was killed in Moletai, 1941  OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA  Zelda Kuropatkin, standing right, was killed in Moletai, 1941

He died in a different way. In a different place. He asked his neighbours Lithuanians to help him make a dug-out wherein he could hide his property. When he came to the forest people were lying in wait for him  and killed him. In the photograph he is sitting. Nevertheless, in the process of collection of the material for the given book and in particular for the given part more and more people appeared who indicated not only the collaborators of the Nazis but those noble people of Molėtai region, who rescued the Jews irrespective of the impending mortal danger. The majority of them are not with us anymore, very few of the rescued survived, children or grandchildren of some of them have no proof about the rescue since any documents would be an incriminating material for the brown and red invaders alike. Nevertheless there is something that survived.

Jew Rescuers

Klemensas Kaušinis took care of the rescue of Isac Judelevičius family throughout all the period of Nazi occupation, included his sisters who lived in Molėtai region into the given mission. When I. Judelevičius was taken to the peasants of Molėtai region Vitkauskas who resided in the Birutė island in Siesartis lake Rachelė Vitkauskienė lived there together with her grown-up sons Juozas and Povilas. In mid June 1944 after somebody informed that a stranger had been noticed on the island policemen led by a German office descended on them. Brothers Juozas and Povilas were badly beaten and imprisoned in Utena whereas I. Judelevičius was imprisoned in Molėtai and later – in Panevėžys prison  and then was taken to the concentration camp in Germany. When the front approached Povilas and Juozas managed to escape from prison although after the beating they were ill for a long time. I. Judelevičius was liberated in Germany and he emigrated to Israel from there. Isac’s wife Raja and daughter Gita were given the permit to emigrate only in 1970. Judelevičius family met after 25 years of separation.

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